New Age History and Economics

The Day We See The Truth And Cease To Speak it, Is The Day We Begin To Die. MLK Jr.

Sunday, May 20, 2012

How to control Inflation

How can we control Inflation? 

There are several measures that can be taken to effectively control inflation before it gets out of hand. Given that inflation is a result of cost push or demand pull functions in economy and imbalance between supply and demand of goods and services at current prices, so measures be taken to reduce costs and demand and increase supply of goods and services. Following measures in this regard are suggested;-

THE SUPPLY SIDE;
  
a) Increased Production;
The supply of goods and services can be increased by increasing Industrial and Agricultural production. Agricultural production can be increased by providing an adequate supply of agricultural inputs at low prices, modernization of agricultural, scientific farm management, adequate water supply for irrigation etc. Similarly Industrial production can be increased by giving incentives for increased production, foreign direct investment, credit growth fiscal concession etc.


b) Reducing costs of Production;

Reducing cost of debt; - decreased interest rates on Industrial and Agricultural loans.

Reducing labor cost; - Reducing minimum wage thus inviting more entrepreneurs into production.

Reducing price of raw materials; -, Lots of raw material is supplied by or is under control of Government or Politicians like mining products or by freeing imports from duties and tariffs.

Reducing prices of Gas, Energy, transportation etc will lead to lower costs of production and supply there nullifying cost push inflation. 

 c) Control of Illegal Activities;

There are some illegal activities that cause significant inflation in economy. It is hoarding, smuggling, profiteering, black marketing etc. In the case of smuggling of large staples of sugar, butter, wheat rice etc are exported illegally in order to obtain higher prices. Similarly the shortage in most cases are artificially created to increase profits. All such activities must be controlled through advertisements, giving rewards to informants, and punishments to offenders.

d) Price and Security;

Production and distribution of goods can be affected due to existence of unease and insecurity or disorder in society. In such circumstances, investors are hesitant to invest for fear of potential loss. Similarly, the production of Industrial products is affected due to several unpleasant events such as strikes, public disorder, rallies riots etc. Therefore peace and security must be ensured to maintain regular supply of goods and services.

e) Maintain Energy Resources;

The supply of agricultural and industrial products is highly dependent on energy availability. If the energy availability is irregular or expensive it will adversely affect supply and its costs and will become expensive. Increased costs causes inflation. Therefore all necessary measures be taken to provide regular supply of major sources of energy to agricultural and industrial sector at constant costs.


THE DEMAND SIDE;

a) Control of Money Supply;

The money supply has great influence on rising inflation that is, money supply increases demand and thereby increases inflation and vise verse. Therefore to control inflation, measures must be taken to control money supply. The money supply can be controlled with the help of Monetary policy in which Central Bank of a Country uses various methods, such as Bank Rate policy, open market operations, changing reserve requirements, credit rationing, direct market intervention etc. All these methods are useful to control inflation in a country.

b) There is no deficit Financing;

Deficit financing shows that public is spending beyond their income. To some extent it will lead to development but it will also lead to inflation. Deficit financing is used to finance additional costs of budget deficit. This leads to increased money supply in economy. Therefore deficit financing should be discouraged and all developmental financing should be met through taxes and debt sale.


c) Population control;

In most developing countries, the population is increasing very quickly, whereas production of goods and services is not increasing at same pace. This leads to imbalance between demand and supply of goods and services which leads to inflation. Therefore, to control inflation, appropriate measures should be taken to control the population.
 
d) Fiscal Policy;

Fiscal policy refers to Government policy of public spending and taxes. The main objective of Fiscal policy is to maintain only a slight change in the general price level. During inflation, the government tries to reduce its expenditure on unproductive activities and the direct tax rate increases so that the purchasing power of the population is reduced. Due to reduction in the purchasing power of the population, demand of goods and services will be reduced leading to controlled Inflation.


e) Direct Measures;

There are several other options available to the government to control inflation and wage and price freeze, rationing of goods, establishments of public service shops, price review / stabilization committees. These several measures are often used by Governments to control inflation.

Kaps


Thursday, May 10, 2012

Earlier Masonic Influences in USA



The (Masonic) Nation – United States of America.
Continued from USA- Masonic Nation.

"There were many Masonic influences in early American history:

(1) Lafayette, the French liaison to the Colonies, without whose aid the war could not have been won, was a Freemason;

(2) The majority of the commanders of the Continental Army were Freemasons and members of "Army Lodges";

(3) Most of George Washington's generals were Freemasons;

(4) The Boston Tea Party was planned at the Green Dragon Tavern, also known as the "Freemasons' Arms" and "the Headquarters of the Revolution";

(5) George Washington was sworn in as the first President of the United States by Robert Livingston, Grand Master of New York's Masonic lodge, and the Bible on which he took his oath was from his own Masonic lodge;

(6) The Cornerstone of the Capital Building was laid by the Grand Lodge of Maryland."

The New Secular OrderAn Order based on reason.

The following profiles demonstrate the commitment of the most prominent and influential founding fathers to Freemasonry, deism and/or theism.

Benjamin Franklin

"On 8 December 1730, Benjamin Franklin printed in his newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette, the first documented notice about Freemasonry in North America. Franklin's article, which consisted of a general account of Freemasonry, was prefaced by the statement that 'there are several Lodges of FREE MASONS erected in this Province'... Franklin became Freemason in February 1731, and Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania in 1734. He was one of the most influential figures in the American Revolution. He was the writer, philosopher and scientist. He had become a Freemason in 1731 when he joined the Lodge of St. John in Philadelphia, which was the first recognized Masonic lodge in America. At the time he was inducted Franklin was working as a journalist and he wrote several pro-Masonic articles which were published in The Pennsylvania Gazette. In 1732 he helped draft the by laws of his lodge and in 1734 That same year, he ushered into print the first Freemasonic book to be published in America, and edition of Anderson's Constitutions...the Bible for English Freemasonry. It enunciates what were to become some of the now familiar and basic tenets of the Grand Lodge... (In) The first article... Anderson writes, 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige (Masons) to that Religion to which all men agree..."

He eventually rose to Grand Master of the St. John's lodge and in 1749 was elected Grand Master of the Province. While in France in the 1770s, as a diplomat for the American colonies, Franklin was made Grand Master of the Nine Sisters Lodge in Paris. Members of the Lodge included Danton, who was to play a crucial role in the French Revolution, the Marquis de Lafayette and Paul Jones, both of whom fought in the American War of Independence. While in Paris Franklin used his Masonic contacts to raise funds to buy arms for the American rebels.'" [Michael Howard, The Occult Conspiracy - Secret Societies - Their Influence and Power in World History]

"Franklin, was also a Rosicrucian Grand Master, who was at the heart of the Illuminati operations to take over America and replace the visible control of the British Empire with the invisible control of the secret brotherhood, the most effective and ongoing form of mastering the underclass. It is said the Illuminati, via the Freemasons, controlled and manipulated both sides in the American War of Independence and were also deeply connected with the French Revolution (1789).

"Franklin was Agent 72 of the British intelligence agency created by Dr. John Dee and Francis Bacon during the rein of Elizabeth I. During their time in London, Franklin and the Professor were brought into contact with those in positions of power who shared their Masonic and occult interests. One of these was Sir Francis Dashwood, the English Chancellor of the Exchequer who was also the founder of a secret society called the Friars of St. Francis of Wycombe, more popularly known in the parlors of London as the Hell Fire Club.

"Franklin and LeMarchand spent a summer at Dashwood's estate in West Wycombe, north of London, where they took part in rituals in the specially-created caves dug on Dashwood's orders.

"Dashwood and Franklin, both postmasters, together were able to control and disseminate intelligence better than the military. Postmaster at this point in history meant spymaster as the postmasters controlled the movement of information."

Franklin is also remembered as an influential scientist and political statesman. To complement his reputation as one of the great scientists of the 18th Century, he invented two common devices still used today – the lightning rod and bifocal spectacles. He is also the only Founding Father who is a signatory to the three foundation documents of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris and the United States Constitution.

Manly P. Hall, in The Secret Destiny of America, claims that Benjamin Franklin was part of the ‘ Order of the Quest’, the secret movement to construct masonic democracy in the New World:

Men bound by a secret oath to labor in the cause of world democracy decided that in the American colonies they would plant the roots of a new way of life…Benjamin Franklin exercised an enormous psychological influence in Colonial politics as the appointed spokesman of the unknown philosophers; he did not make laws, but his words became law.

George Washington

Franklin had been a Freemason for almost fifty years by the time he signed the Declaration of Independence. He was not, however, the only Freemason involved in the Founding of the United States.
Washington: An Abridgement, by Richard Harwell, records the first president's initiation and loyalty to the Masonic Lodge.

"On September 1, 1752, a new lodge of Masons held its first meeting in Fredericksburg and soon attracted members. Under Daniel Campbell as Master, a class of five was initiated on November 4. George, one of this group, paid his initiation fee of £23s. as an Entered Apprentice. [Washington's journey to Fredericksburg- 1781] In 1788, the year before becoming the first President of the United States, Washington did become Master of the Alexandria lodge in Washington, D.C., today known as the Alexandria Washington Lodge No. 22. The lodge became the site of the George Washington Masonic Memorial in 1932, a huge Masonic landmark modeled on the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, the ‘Pharos’.

"The journey had shown that the President was as popular in the Southern States as he was in Federalist New England. On the tour he received at least twenty-three addresses. Particularly noticeable were the addresses from Lodges of Free Masons. This probably had no other significance other than it disclosed the strength of the Masons in the South and their pride in Washington as a brother. His answers, in turn, were in good Masonic terms, with no casualness in his references to his membership in the Order."

In 1791, Washington chose Washington , D.C. in 1791 and commissioned Pierre Charles L'Enfant, a French engineer, to create a plan for the physical layout of the city, with the Capitol as the center of the city.

"[He] took the road for the relatively brief ride to the Federal City. It was September 18 [1794], the date for laying the cornerstone of the Capitol. The President found the splendor of music and drums, of flying colors, of many Masons in their symbolic regalia, of happy spectators generally.  It was a memorable affair for the Masonic Order, magnified by Washington's participation as a member."

Portions of the Temple and The Lodge also confirm that Masonic ceremonies were conducted for Washington's inauguration and the laying of the cornerstone of the Capitol building:

"On 4 February 1789, Washington was elected first president of the United States and John Adams his vice-president. The inauguration was on 30 April. The oath was administered by Robert Livingston, Grand Master of New York's Grand Lodge...The marshal of the day was another Freemason, General Jacob Morton. Yet another Freemason, General Morgan Lewis, was Washington's escort... Washington himself at the time was Master of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Virginia... On 14 December, Alexander Hamilton submitted proposals for establishing a National Bank. Jefferson opposed them but Washington signed them through. On the American dollar bill was printed the 'Great Seal' of the United States. It is unmistakably Freemasonic - an all seeing eye in a triangle above a thirteen-stepped, four-sided pyramid, beneath which a scroll proclaims the advent of a 'new secular order,' one of Freemasonry's long-standing dreams.

Despite attending church services with his wife, Washington held philosophical and religious views which suggest that he, like Franklin, was a Deist. He would regularly leave services before communion, a habit which moved Reverend Dr. James Abercrombie to compose a sermon scolding those in high positions for setting a bad example with their church attendance. Washington responded by ceasing to turn up at all. When Rev. Abercrombie was asked about Washington’s religious views later in life, he simply replied: “Sir, Washington was a Deist.”

Kaps. 

Continued to Masonic Foundations of USA.html

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

Understanding Mein Kampf - Chapter II a



Lies being taught;
Hitler was Psychic, deranged mental nut;
Now the truth;

Understanding Hitler- "Mein Kampf"


CHAPTER II

YEARS OF STUDY AND SUFFERING IN VIENNA;

"When my mother died my fate had already been decided in one respect. During the last months of her illness I went to Vienna to take the entrance examination for the Academy of Fine Arts. Armed with a bulky packet of sketches, I felt convinced that I should pass the examination quite easily. At the REALSCHULE I was by far the best student in the drawing class, and since that time I had made more than ordinary progress in the practice of drawing. Therefore I was pleased with myself and was proud and happy at the prospect of what I considered an assured success.

But there was one misgiving: It seemed to me that I was better qualified for drawing than for painting, especially in the various branches of architectural drawing. At the same time my interest in architecture was constantly increasing. And I advanced in this direction at a still more rapid pace after my first visit to Vienna, which lasted two weeks. I was not yet sixteen years old. I went to the Hof Museum to study the paintings in the art gallery there; but the building itself captured almost all my interest, from early morning until late at night I spent all my time visiting the various public buildings. And it was the buildings themselves that were always the principal attraction for me. For hours and hours I could stand in wonderment before the Opera and the Parliament. The whole Ring Strasse had a magic effect upon me, as if it were a scene from the Thousand-and-one-Nights.

And now I was here for the second time in this beautiful city, impatiently waiting to hear the result of the entrance examination but proudly confident that I had got through. I was so convinced of my success that when the news that I had failed to pass was brought to me it struck me like a bolt from the skies. Yet the fact was that I had failed. I went to see the Rector and asked him to explain the reasons why they refused to accept me as a student in the general School of Painting, which was part of the Academy. He said that the sketches which I had brought with me unquestionably showed that painting was not what I was suited for but that the same sketches gave clear indications of my aptitude for architectural designing. Therefore the School of Painting did not come into question for me but rather the School of Architecture, which also formed part of the Academy. At first it was impossible to understand how this could be so, seeing that I had never been to a school for architecture and had never received any instruction in architectural designing.

When I left the Hansen Palace, on the SCHILLER PLATZ, I was quite crestfallen. I felt out of sorts with myself for the first time in my young life. For what I had heard about my capabilities now appeared to me as a lightning flash which clearly revealed a dualism under which I had been suffering for a long time, but hitherto I could give no clear account whatsoever of the why and wherefore. Within a few days I myself also knew that I ought to become an architect.

After the death of my mother I came to Vienna for the third time. This visit was destined to last several years. Since I had been there before I had recovered my old calm and resoluteness. The former self-assurance had come back, and I had my eyes steadily fixed on the goal. I would be an architect. Obstacles are placed across our path in life, not to be boggled at but to be surmounted. And I was fully determined to surmount these obstacles, having the picture of my father constantly before my mind, who had raised himself by his own efforts to the position of a civil servant though he was the poor son of a village shoemaker.

I am thankful for that period of my life, because it hardened me and enabled me to be as tough as I now am. And I am even more thankful because I appreciate the fact that I was thus saved from the emptiness of a life of ease and that a mother's darling was taken from tender arms and handed over to Adversity as to a new mother. Though I then rebelled against it as too hard a fate, I am grateful that I was thrown into a world of misery and poverty and thus came to know the people for whom I was afterwards to fight.

For many people the name of Vienna signifies innocent jollity, a festive place for happy mortals. For me, alas, it is a living memory of the saddest period in my life. Even to-day the mention of that city arouses only gloomy thoughts in my mind. Five years of poverty in that Phaecian (Note 5) town. Five years in which, first as a casual labourer and then as a painter of little trifles, I had to earn my daily bread. And a meager morsel indeed it was, not even sufficient to still the hunger which I constantly felt. That hunger was the faithful guardian which never left me but took part in everything I did. Every book that I bought meant renewed hunger, and every visit I paid to the opera meant the intrusion of that inalienabl companion during the following days. I was always struggling with my unsympathic friend. And yet during that time I learned more than I had ever learned before. Outside my architectural studies and rare visits to the opera, for which I had to deny myself food, I had no other pleasure in life except my books.

[Note 5. The Phaecians were a legendary people, mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. They were supposed to live on some unknown island in the Eastern Mediterranean, sometimes suggested to be Corcyra, the modern Corfu. They loved good living more than work, and so the name Phaecian has come to be
a synonym for parasite.]

I read a great deal then, and I pondered deeply over what I read. All the free time after work was devoted exclusively to study. Thus within a few years I was able to acquire a stock of knowledge which I find useful even to-day.

But more than that. During those years a view of life and a definite outlook on the world took shape in my mind. These became the granite basis of my conduct at that time. Since then I have extended that foundation only very little, and I have changed nothing in it.

On the contrary: I am firmly convinced to-day that, generally speaking, it is in youth that men lay the essential groundwork of their creative thought, wherever that creative thought exists. I make a distinction between the wisdom of age--which can only arise from the greater profundity and foresight that are based on the experiences of a long life--and the creative genius of youth, which blossoms out in thought and ideas with inexhaustible fertility, without being able to put these into practice immediately, because of their very superabundance. These furnish the building materials and plans for the future; and it is from them that age takes the stones and builds the edifice, unless the so-called wisdom of the years may have smothered the creative genius of youth.

The ditch which separates that class, which is by no means economically well-off; from the manual laboring class is often deeper than people think. The reason for this division, which we may almost call enmity, lies in the fear that dominates a social group which has only just risen above the level of the manual laborer--a fear lest it may fall back into its old condition or at least be classed with the laborers. Moreover, there is something repulsive in remembering the cultural indigence of that lower class and their rough manners with one another; so that people who are only on the first rung of the social ladder find it unbearable to be forced to have any contact with the cultural level and standard of living out of which they have passed.

And so it happens that very often those who belong to what can really be called the upper classes find it much easier than do the upstarts to descend to and intermingle with their fellow beings on the lowest social level. For by the word upstart I mean everyone who has raised himself through his own efforts to a social level higher than that to which he formerly belonged. In the case of such a person the hard struggle through which he passes often destroys his normal human sympathy. His own fight for existence kills his sensibility for the misery of those who have been left behind.

From this point of view fate had been kind to me. Circumstances forced me to return to that world of poverty and economic insecurity above which my father had raised himself in his early days; and thus the blinkers of a narrow PETIT BOURGEOIS education were torn from my eyes. Now for the first time I learned to know men and I learned to distinguish between empty appearances or brutal manners and the real inner nature of the people who outwardly appeared thus.

There was hardly any other German city in which the social problem could be studied better than in Vienna. But here I must utter a warning against the illusion that this problem can be 'studied' from above downwards. The man who has never been in the clutches of that crushing viper can never know what its poison is. An attempt to study it in any other way will result only in superficial talk and sentimental delusions. Both are harmful. The first because it can never go to the root of the question, the second because it evades the question entirely. I do not know which is the more nefarious: to ignore social distress, as do the majority of those who have been favoured by fortune and those who have risen in the social scale through their own routine labour, or the equally supercilious and often tactless but always genteel condescension displayed by people who make a fad of being charitable and who plume themselves on 'sympathising with the people.' Of course such persons sin more than they can imagine from lack of instinctive understanding. And thus they are astonished to find that the 'social conscience' on which they pride themselves never produces any results, but often causes their good intentions to be resented; and then they talk of the ingratitude of the people.

Such persons are slow to learn that here there is no place for merely social activities and that there can be no expectation of gratitude; for in this connection there is no question at all of distributing favours but essentially a matter of retributive justice. I was protected against the temptation to study the social question in the way just mentioned, for the simple reason that I was forced to live in the midst of poverty-stricken people. Therefore it was not a question of studying the problem objectively, but rather one of testing its effects on myself. Though the rabbit came through the ordeal of the experiment, this must not be taken as evidence of its harmlessness.

At that time it was for the most part not very difficult to find work, because I had to seek work not as a skilled tradesman but as a so-called extra-hand ready to take any job that turned up by chance, just for the sake of earning my daily bread.

Thus I found myself in the same situation as all those emigrants who shake the dust of Europe from their feet, with the cast-iron determination to lay the foundations of a new existence in the New World and acquire for themselves a new home. Liberated from all the parlaysing prejudices of class and calling, environment and tradition, they enter any service that opens its doors to them, accepting any work that comes their way, filled more and more with the idea that honest work never disgraced anybody, no matter what kind it may be. And so I was resolved to set both feet in what was for me a new world and push forward on my own road.

I soon found out that there was some kind of work always to be got, but I also learned that it could just as quickly and easily be lost. The uncertainty of being able to earn a regular daily livelihood soon appeared to me as the gloomiest feature in this new life that I had entered.

Although the skilled worker was not so frequently thrown idle on the streets as the unskilled worker, yet the former was by no means protected against the same fate; because though he may not have to face hunger as a result of unemployment due to the lack of demand in the labour market, the lock-out and the strike deprived the skilled worker of the chance to earn his bread. Here the element of uncertainty in steadily earning one's daily bread was the bitterest feature of the whole social-economic system itself.

The country lad who migrates to the big city feels attracted by what has been described as easy work--which it may be in reality--and few working hours. He is especially entranced by the magic glimmer spread over the big cities. Accustomed in the country to earn a steady wage, he has been taught not to quit his former post until a new one is at least in sight. As there is a great scarcity of agricultural labour, the probability of long unemployment in the country has been very small. It is a mistake to presume that the lad who leaves the countryside for the town is not made of such sound material as those who remain at home to work on the land.  On the contrary, experience shows that it is the more healthy and more vigorous that emigrate, and not the reverse. Among these emigrants I include not merely those who emigrate to America, but also the servant boy in the country who decides to leave his native village and migrate to the big city where he will be a stranger. He is ready to take the risk of an uncertain fate. In most cases he comes to town with a little money in his pocket and for the first few days he is not discouraged if he should not have the good fortune to find work. But if he finds a job and then loses it in a little while, the case is much worse. To find work anew, especially in winter, is often difficult and indeed sometimes impossible. For the first few weeks life is still bearable He receives his out-of-work money from his trade union and is thus enabled to carry on. But when the last of his own money is gone and his trade union ceases to pay out because of the prolonged unemployment, then comes the real distress. He now loiters about and is hungry. Often he pawns or sells the last of his belongings. His clothes begin to get shabby and with the increasing poverty of his outward appearance he descends to a lower social level and mixes up with a class of human beings through whom his mind is now poisoned, in addition to his physical misery. Then he has nowhere to sleep and if that happens in winter, which is very often the case, he is in dire distress. Finally he gets work. But the old story repeats itself. A second time the same thing happens. Then a third time; and now it is probably much worse. Little by little he becomes indifferent to this everlasting insecurity. Finally he grows used to the repetition. Thus even a man who is normally of industrious habits grows careless in his whole attitude towards life and gradually becomes an instrument in the hands of unscrupulous people who exploit him for the sake of their own ignoble aims. He has been so often thrown out of employment through no fault of his own that he is now more or less indifferent whether the strike in which he takes part be for the purpose of securing his economic rights or be aimed at the destruction of the State, the whole social order and even civilization itself. Though the idea of going on strike may not be to his natural liking, yet he joins in it out of sheer indifference.

One thing stood out clearly before my eyes: It was the sudden changes from work to idleness and vice versa; so that the constant fluctuations thus caused by earnings and expenditure finally destroyed the 'sense of thrift for many people and also the habit of regulating expenditure in an intelligent way. The body appeared to grow accustomed to the vicissitudes of food and hunger, eating heartily in good times and going hungry in bad. Indeed hunger shatters all plans for rationing expenditure on a regular scale in better times when employment is again found. The reason for this is that the deprivations which the unemployed worker has to endure must be compensated for psychologically by a persistent mental mirage in which he imagines himself eating heartily once again. When the phenomenon which I have mentioned first happens, the earnings will last perhaps for five days instead of seven; on subsequent occasions they will last only for three days; as the habit recurs, the earnings will last scarcely for a day; and finally they will disappear in one night of feasting."

Adolf Hitler

Kaps;
Sources;